I view psychotherapy as a kind of conversation between myself and the person who comes to see me. I say "a kind of" conversation because it is not always conducted in words. The following are descriptions of some of my methods, both verbal and non-verbal.

Psychodynamic Relational "Talk Therapy"
This is a modern psychotherapy that grew out of the rich European history of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic methods and theory have gone through many modifications since their inception. Unlike Freudian psychoanalysts, I do not expect all the talking to come from the patient nor all the interpretations to come from me. I do not attempt to remain impassive or neutral, or present myself as an ultimate authority. I have a more collaborative model of working. The development of the therapeutic relationship, itself, is an important part of the transformation process.

When I work in this way, I do whatever I can to help the patient tell his or her story: listen, allow silence, ask questions, validate perceptions, identify important patterns, events, and feelings. I also answer questions, provide psycho-education, as well as interpretations and analyses. It is common to talk about family history and trauma history during this work.

An innovative body-mind therapy developed over the past 15 years. It is exceptionally useful in working on the persistent after-effects of trauma. It combines "Talk Therapy", Behavioral-Cognitive Therapy, and direct work with the brain through eye movements, auditory, or tactile bilateral stimulation. (See EMDR).

Hypnotic induction is useful in putting patients in touch with their breathing and their bodies. Sometimes it helps people at the ends of sessions, in preparing to re-enter the city streets outside my office.

I also use a form of hypnosis in creating therapeutic visualizations. Using the imagination can help to "unstick" one's mind. Adding hypnotic technique adds power to this experience.

Art Therapy
Used when patients have trouble finding words to describe their inner conflicts. Sometimes drawing feelings can be more articulate than finding words to describe them. I keep drawing pads and crayons, markers, colored pencils in my office, as well as other special materials.

Sandtray Therapy
A technique using a flat tray of sand with tiny figurines, and other objects. I sit on the floor with my patients, while they touch, rake, and shovel the sand, creating hills and hollows, allowing the natural substance to flow through their fingers. The material itself can be very soothing. After a few minutes, people might sort through my collection of objects and figurines, and create a landscape in the tray. Sometimes we talk during this, and sometimes not. Sometimes we talk about what is being created in the tray, and sometimes we talk about totally unrelated things. At the end of the session, when we look at the tray together, we often understand something new. Inevitably, patients feel calmer when they leave the session.